List of National Parks, Wild Life reserves, conservation areas, hunting reserves and buffer zones of Nepal.

A. National Parks

Established (A.D) Area
Flora Fauna Unique features
Chitwan National Park
(150 to 815 m)
1973 932 • Sal forests (70%),
• Grasslands (20%),
• Riverine (7%)
• Sal with Chirpine (3%)
• Mammals (50 sp.), birds (over 525), Amphibians and reptiles (55 sp.)
• Endangered fauna - Rhino, Gaur, Bengal tiger, Wild elephant, Four-horned antelope, Pangolin, Golden monitor lizard, Python, Bengal florican, Lesser florican, Giant hornbill, Black stork, White stork
• First national Park of Nepal
• Included in a world heritage site in 1984
• Known for one-horned Rhinoceros
Sagarmatha National Park
(2845 to 8848 m)
1976 1148 • Pine, fir, juniper
• Alpine plant communities
• Red Panda, Snow-leopard, Himalayan Thar, Pika, Ghoral, Musk deer
• Birds (over 118 sp.) including Danphe (national bird of Nepal)
• Includes the highest peak of the world
• Included in a world heritage site in 1979 AD
Rara National Park
(1800 to 4048 m)
1976 106 • Sub-alpine and high temperate vegetation
• Blue pine, Black Juniper, Oak, walnut
• Mammals (20 sp.), birds (214 spp), fishes (3 sp.)
• Musk deer, Himalayan Black bear, Himalayan Thar, Ghoral, Red Panda, Common otter etc.
• Smallest National Park
• Lake Rara
Langtang National Park
(792 to 7245 m)
Designated in 1970-71, gazetted in 1976 1710 • Sal forests, Hill foerests, Oak forests, blue pine, fir, hemlock, Rhododendron • Musk deer, Himalayan Black bear, Himalayan Thar, Ghoral, snow leopard, Wild dog, Shrew, Red Panda
• Birds (250 sp.)
• A great verities of vegetation types within a short aerial distance
Shey-phoksundo National Park
(2000 to 6885 m)
1984 3555 • Rhododendron, fir, birch, juniper, pine, bamboo, salix, Caragana, shrubs • Snow leopard, grey wolf, musk deer, blue sheep, great Tibetan sheep, Himalayan Thar, leopard, Jackal, Himalayan Black bear
• Reptiles (6 sp.), Butterfly (29 sp.) including highest flying butterfly in the world Paralasa nepalaica, birds (over 200 sp.)
• Largest National Park in Nepal
• Highest Waterfall in Nepal
Khaptad Nataional Park
(1000 to 3276 m)
1984 225 • Subtropical to temperate forest • Chir pine, spruce, fir, Maple, Birch, Alder, Rhododendron, Flowers (about 135 sp.), Medicinal herbs (about 224 sp.) • Musk deer, spotted leopard, Langur, Asiatic black bear, Wild boar, Golden Jackal
• Birds (266 sp.), mammals (20 sp.)
• Religious and socially important
Bardia National Park
(152 to 1441 m)
1988 968 • Sal tree, Grassland and riverine forests, sal-pine forest, Khair-sissoo forest • Birds(over 230 sp.), Mammals (30sps)
• Tiger, Rhino, Swamp deer, dolphin, blackbuck, Gharial, Crocodile
• Dense sal forest
• Gangetic Dolphin and Gharial
Makalu Barun National Park
(435 to 8463 m)
1992 1500 • Rhododendron (25 sp.), orchids (47 types) and rare plants (56) • Snow leopard, Himalayan marmot, Red panda, musk deer, wild boar, yak • Snow leopard and Red Panda
Shivapuri Nagarjun National park
(1366 to 2732 m)
2002 159 • Pine, Oak, Rhododendron, Mushroom(129 sp.) • Himalayan Black Bear, Leopard, Jungle Cat, Rhesus monkey, Birds (177 sp.), butterflies (102 sp.) • Watershed area for Kathmandu city
Banke National Park 12th July 2010 550 Sal, grassland, karma, Khair, sissoo. Mammals (34), birds (more than 300), reptiles (24), amphibians (7), fishes (58) Recognized as a gift to earth in 1998. Promotes ecotourism.

B. Wild Life Reserves

Established (A.D) Area (Km2) Flora Fauna Unique features
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
(75 to 81 m)
1976 175 • Tall grasslands, Khair-sissoo scrub forest and deciduous mixed riverine forest • Wild buffalo (159 individuals), hog deer, wild boar, spotted deer, Blue bull, Rock python
• Fish (80 sp.), birds (441 sp.
• Gharial, Crocodile, Gangetic dolphin
• Only remaining population of wild buffalo (Bubalus arnee)
• Smallest wildlife reserve of Nepal
Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve
(90 to 270m)
1976 305 • Sal, sissoo, simal, karma • Siru and elephant grass • Swamp deer, Spotted deer, Hog deer
• Wild boar, Blue bull, Tiger, leopard
• Birds (268 sp.)
• Crocodile, python, cobra, krait
• Swamp deer(about 200 to 2500)
 • Largest herd of swamp deer
• Declared royal hunting reserve in 1969 AD
Parsa Wild Life Reserve (150 to 825m) 1984 499 • Sal forests, riverine forests
 • Pine, Khair
• Wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, sloth bear, leopard, Blue bull, sambar deer, Chital, Hog deer, barking deer, Langur, Rhesus monkey, striped hyena, Jungle cat, Palm civet
• Birds (500 sp.)- Giant hornbill(E)
• Cobra, Krait, Python, King cobra
• Largest wildlife reserve in Nepal

C. Conservation Areas

Established (AD) Area (Km2) Flora Fauna Unique Features
Annapurna Conservation Area
(100-8092 m)
1992 7629 • Upper Rhododendron, • Sal, Oak, Alder, Juniper,
• Birch, Blue pine
• Mixed broad-leaved forest
• Mammals (10), notable birds
• Snow leopard, blue sheep, Asiatic black bear, Red panda, Barking deer etc.
• Largest protected area in Nepal.
• Most Famous trekking destination in Nepal.
• World’s Deepest gorge, the Kali Gandaki.
Kanchanjunga Conservation Area
(1200 to 8998 m)
1998 2035 • Sub-tropical evergreen forest (800-1200 m)
• Lower temperate forest (1200-2500 m)
• Upper temperate forest (2500-3500 m)
• Sub-Alpine zone (3500-3900 m)
• Alpine zone (3900-4600 m)
• Snow leopard, Musk Deer, Panda, blue sheep etc. •Rhododendron
Manasulu Conservation Area
(100 to 8092 m)
1998 1663 • Plants (2000 Species)
• 11 types of forests
• Over 50 species of useful plants
• Mammals (33),
• Birds (110),
• Butterfly (11),
• Reptiles (3)
• Largest protected area in Nepal.
• Most Famous trekking destination in Nepal.
• World’s Deepest gorge, the Kali Gandaki.
Blackbuck Conservation Area 2009 15.95 • Blackbucks (213)
Api Nampa Conservation Area
(518 to 7132 m)
2007 1903 • Sal, fir, Hemlock, Juniper, Oak, Pine, Rhododendron, • Snow leopard, Musk deer, Clouded leopard, Ghoral, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan Thar, Danphe, Munal.
Gaurishankar Conservation Area 2179

D. Hunting Reserve

Established in (AD) Area (Km2) Flora Fauna Unique Features
Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (2850 to 7000 m) 1987 1325 • Alpine, Sub-alpine and High temperate vegetation,
• Birch, Rhododendron, Fir, Juniper, Oak, Grassland.
• Blue Sheep, Leopard,
• Himalayan Thar, Asiatic Black Bear, Red Panda, Musk Deer, Wild Dog etc.
• Endangered Pheasants and Partridges
• Only one hunting reserve in Nepal.

E. Buffer zones

Name Established year
Chitwan National Park 1996
Bardia National Park 1996
Langtang National Park 1998
Shey-Phoksundo National Park 1998
Makalu-Barun National Park 1999
Sagarmatha National Park 2000
Rara National Park 2006
Khaptad National Park 2006
Banke National Park 2010
Sukhlaphanta Wildlife Reserve 2004
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve 2004
Parsa Wildlife Reserve 200

Protected Animal species in Nepal, as stipulated in the 1973 National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1971 (and subsequent amendments)

A. Mammals

Common Name Scientific Name IUCN listing
Red Panda Ailurus fulgens V
Black Buck Antelope cervicapra E
Wild Yak Bos mutus E
Gaur (Indian Bison) Bos gaurus V
Wild buffalo Bubalus bubalis E
Wolf Canis lupus
Hispid hare Caprolegus hispidus E
Swamp deer Cervus duvauceli E
Wild elephant Elephas maximus E
Leopard cat Felis bengalensis
Lynx Felis lynx
Striped Hyena Hyaena hyaena E (N. Africa)
Pangolin (Indian and Chinese) Manis pentadactyla
Musk deer Moschus moschiferus V
Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa V
Great Tibetan Sheep (Nayan) Ovis ammon I
Tiger Panthera tigris E
Snow leopard Panthera uncial E
Tibetan antelope Pantholops hodgsoni
Gangetic dolphin Platanista gangetica V
Linsang Prionodon paradicolor
Indian Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis E
Pygmy hog Sus salvanius E
Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadrieornis
Himalayan brown bear Ursus arotos
Assamese rhesus monkey Macaca assamensis

B. Birds

Common Name Scientific Name IUCN listing
Giant hornbill Buceros bicornis
Cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii V
White stork Ciconia ciconia R
Black stork Ciconia nigra
Bengal florican Euodotis bengalensis E
Sarus crane Gus antigone
Impeyan pheasant Lophophorus impejanus
Lesser florican Sypheotides indica E
Crimson-horned pheasant Tragopan satyra

C. Reptiles

Common Name Scientific Name IUCN listing
Gharial (Gavial) Gavialis gangeticus E
Indian python Python molurus V
Yellow monitor lizard Varanus flavesence I

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