· Fruit is Matured and ripened ovary.
· After fertilization ovary changes into fruit and ovule into seed.

Broadly, Fruit can be divided into two parts:
    1. Seed – from ovule
    2. Pericarp
· Development of fruit without fertilization is parthenocarpy.
· Patherocarpic fruits are generally seedless.
In true fruits,
· Epicarp forms the outer skin.
· Mesocarp forms the edible fleshy region.
· Endocarp forms the innermost hard region that encloses the seed.

Types of Fruit: True and False Fruit
1. True fruits or Eucarpic
· Fruit that develops from the ovary. e.g. Tomato, Mango etc.
2. False fruit or Pseudocarpic
· Develops from any plant part other than ovary.
· In false fruit edible portion is not the wall of the ovary but a floral part like a receptacle.
· A receptacle is fleshy thalamus. e.g. Apple (Pirus malus), Pear, etc.

· Pomology is the branch of horticulture that deals with the study of fruits and their cultivation.

Various Kinds of Fruits:

A. Simple fruit:
· A fruit that develops from the ovary (of either simple pistil or syncarpous pistil) of a flower with or without accessory parts.
2 types of Simple fruit are:
1. Dry fruits
· The pericarp is not differentiated into three regions.
3 types of Dry fruit are:
A. Dehiscent or capsular fruits.
· Fruits whose pericarp bursts to liberate the seeds when pericarp mature.
a. Legume or pod:
· Dry one chambered fruit developing from a simple pistil and by both the margins.
· E.g. Pulses (pea, gram, lentil) cassia, mimosa etc.
b. Follicle:
· Dry one chambered fruit which dehisces by one suture only. E.g. Madar (Calotropis)
c. Siliqua:
· Dry long narrow, two-chambered fruit developing from bicarpellary pistil with parietal placentation. It dehisces from the base towards the top by both margins. e.g. Cruciferae (mustard family)
· Silicula is the flat siliqua. e.g. Iberis, Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd's purse)
d. Capsule:
· Dry, one to many chambered fruit developing from multicarpellary syncarpous pistil and dehiscing in various ways.
· Dehiscence occurs by
    1. Pore – poricidal. e.g. Cotton, Lady's finger.
    2.  Septa – septicidal e.g. Linum
· Septa break down into a number of compartments – septifragal. e.g. Datura

B. Indehiscent or Achenial fruits
· Type of fruit whose pericarp does not burst and consequently seeds cannot be liberated from the fruits until the decay of the pericarp.
a. Achene:
· Dry one-seeded fruit developing from single carpel.
· Pericarp is free from testa except for one point.
· E.g. Mirabilis jalapa (4 O'clock plant)
b. Cypsela:
· Dry one-seeded fruit developing from bicarpellary ovary. 
· E.g. Sunflower, marigold, etc.
c. Samara:
· One or two-seeded
· Winged fruit developing from a superior bicarpellary or tricarpellary ovary.
· One or more wings are developed from the pericarp of the fruit. 
· E.g. Fruits of sal tree (Shorea), Dioscorea, Dipterocarpus.
d. Nut:
· Dry one-seeded fruit developing from a superior syncarpous pistil. 
· E.g. Anacardium (cashew nut), litchi, Trapa
e. Caryopsis:
Pericarp and testa completely fused develop from superior, monocarpellary pistil E.g. Maize, rice, wheat, oat, etc.

C. Splitting or Schizocarpic fruit:
· Many seeded
· Pericarp breaks at maturity into one-seeded parts at maturity
a. Lomentum:
· Constricted pod partitioned between the seeds into a number of one-seeded compartments called lomentum. E.g. Acacia, Mimosa, Casaia.
· Generally the members of the family Cesalpinaceae and Mimosaceae.
b. Cremocarp

· Two chambered inferior fruit splitting into two indehiscent, one-seeded pieces, called a mericarp. E.g. Coriander, carrot
c. Double samara
· Fruit develops from a superior, bicarpellary ovary and when matures it splits into two samaras, each with a wing and a seed. e.g. Shorea, Acer
d. Regma
· 3 to many chambered fruit developing from the syncarpous pistil.
· Split up at maturity into (cocci or dehiscent single-seeded part)
E.g. Ricinus (castor), Euphorbia, Jatropha.

2. Fleshy fruit
1. Drupe
· Fleshy one-seeded fruit.
· Pericarp differentiated into Epicarp – outer skin or epicarp
· Mesocarp – often fleshy or sometimes fibre
· Endocarp – hard and stony so-called stony fruit. e.g. mango, plum, coconut
· Edible part of the mango is fleshy mesocarp and coconut is degenerated liquid endosperm.
2. Bacca or Berr
· Fleshy, superior (sometimes interior)
· Usually many-seeded fruit develop commonly from syncarpous pistil with axile placentation.
e.g. tomato (edible part –fleshy mesocarp, swollen placenta and seed), Banana, Grapes (whole fruit edible), Guava
3. Pepo
· Fleshy, many-seeded fruit but develops from all inferior, one-celled or spuriously three – celled. 
· Syncarpous pistil with parietal placentation.
· E.g. members of family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber, melon, watermelon)
4. Pome
· Two or more celled fleshy syncarpous fruit surrounded by the thalamus.
· Edible part is the thalamus while the actual fruit lies within the thalamus.
· E.g. apple and pear.
5. Hesperidium
· Superior many-celled fleshy fruit with axile placentation.
· Endocarp projects inwards forming distinct chambers, epicarp and mesocarp fused together to form the separable skin or rind of the fruit.
· E.g. orange, lemons, and other citrus fruits.
· Edible part – Juicy placental hair.
6. Balausta
· Epicarp and thalamus fused to form a leathery structure called rind.
· Endocarp forms a membrane surrounding the juicy seeds and mesocarp forms a plate-like in folding in the fruit.
· E.g. fruit of pomegranate (Punica granatum) edible portion juicy testa of seeds.
· Amphisarca – Multicarpellary syncarpous ovary with the swollen placenta.
· E.g. Aegle (edible part: mesocarp + swollen placenta).

3. Aggregate fruit
· Collection of simple fruits (or fruit lets) developing from an apocarpous pistil (free carpels) of a flower.
· An aggregate of simple fruits borne by a single flower is otherwise known as etaerio.
· Etaerio of berries – Custard apple (Anona)
· Etaerio of follicle – Michelia, Calotropis, Vinca
· Etaerio of achenes – Rose, Strawberry, Lotus
· Etaerio of Drupe
 –  Rusbus, Raspberry

4. Multiple or Composite fruits:
· Fruit develops from inflorescence where the flowers are crowded together and often fused with one another.
a. Sorosis:
· Multiple fruits developing from a spike or spadix.
· The Whole inflorescence forms a compact mass.
· E.g. Pineapple (Anana squamosus), Jack fruit (Artocarpus), Mulberry (Morus)
b. Syconus
· Develops form a hollow pear-shaped, fleshy receptacle, which encloses a number of minute male and female flowers.
· Receptacle grows, becomes fleshy and forms the so-called fruit, i.e. fruit develops from hypanthodium inflorescence.
· E.g. Ficus species (banyan, peepal, fig)

Dispersal of Fruit
a. Autochory (self dispersal mechanism)
· Releasing of seeds by some fruits at some distance by the self explosive mechanism e.g. Impatiens (Balsam)
b. Dispersal by wind
· Often called anemochory
· Develops membranous wings for the facility of dispersal by the wind
· Seeds – Moringa (drumstick), Cinchona etc.
· Fruits – Dioscorea, Dipterocarpus, Hiptag
c. Parachute mechanism
· In the sunflower family or Compositae, calyx modifies into a hair-like structure known as a pappus.
· Pappus opens in an umbrella-like fashion, which helps the fruit to be carried by air currents to a distance.
d. Censor Mechanism
· In some plants like poppy, the fruit dehisces when it is disturbed by the wind and the seeds are thrown out.
· Hair – the dispersal of seed by a tuft of hairs coating. e.g. cotton (Gossypium)
· Persistent style – fruits are carried away by the wind with the help of persistent and feathery styles. e.g. Clematis
· Light seed and fruit. e.g. Orchids (smallest seed)
e. Dispersal by Animal or Zoochory
· Hooked fruits are provided with hooks, barbs, spines and bristles on their surface mean to adhere to the clothing of mankind and woolly animal's body.
· E.g. Xanthium
· Sticky fruits – provided with sticky glands
e.g. Fruits of Boerbaavia, Viscum.
· Fleshy fruits – fleshy fruits with conspicuous colours carried by birds and man.
f. Dispersal by ants or Myrmecochory
e.g. Trilium or Anemone.
g. Translator mechanism – Calotropis
h. Dispersal by water or hydrochory
· Fruits are provided with spongy fibrous layers to trap air. They become light and float on the surface. e.g. Coconut, lotus.

Various Fruits and their Edible parts

· Apple (pome) – fleshy thalamus
· Pear (pome) – fleshy thalamus
· Banana (berry) – mesocarp and endocarp
· Coconut (drupe) – endosperm and embryo
· Cucumber (pepo) – mesocarp and endocarp
· Grape (berry) – pericarp and placenta
· Mango (drupe) – mesocarp
· Tomato (berry) – whole fruit
· Orange (hesperidium) – juicy, unicellular hair of endocarp.
· Lady's finger (capsule) – whole fruit.
· Pineapple (sorosis) – the outer portion of receptacle, bracts and perianth.
· Pomegranate (special) – juicy outer coat of the seed.
· Cashew – nut (nut) – peduncle and cotyledons
· Fig (syconus) – fleshy receptacle
· Litchi (nut) – fleshy aril
· Jack (sorosis) – bracts, perianth and seeds.
· Maize, rice and wheat (caryopsis) – starchy endosperm
· Pea (legume) – cotyledons
· Morus alba/ Mulberry (sorosis)
– perianth.
· The spine present in the Trapa are persistent calyx (sepals).
· Litchi edible part fleshy aril is morphologically the stalk of the ovule (funicle).
· Fruit containing lathery glandular epicarp, spongy white mesocarp
and locules with subepidermal juicy hair is hesperidium.
· Bitterness of cucurbits is due to triterpenes.
· Fleshy indehiscent fruit formed from tricarpellary, syncarpous inferior ovary with parietal placentation is pepo.
· Dry schizocarpic dehiscent fruit formed from tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary with axial placentation is regma.
· Pepo is fruit of cucurbitaceae.
· Formation of fruit without fertilization is parthenocarpy [Not the Parthenogenesis]
· Note: parthenogenesis is the formation of an embryo without the gametic fusion/formation of a seed.
· During ripening the fruit becomes soft and pulpy due to dissolution of the middle lamella
· Fruit of candytuft is silicula.
· Single seeded fruit develops from pistil having single ovule.
· Strawberry is a false fruit.
· A simple one-seeded fruit in which the pericarp and testa are fused caryopsis.
· Edible part of the orange is multicelled endocarpic hair.
· Edible part of the Areca nut is the endosperm.
· Ripened ovary forms an inedible core in Pyrus malus.
· Study of fruit is called pomology.

High Yeilding Points from FRUIT

1. Dry fruit: Pericarp is not distinguished into epicarp, endocarp and mesocarp.
i. Dry dehiscent:
a. Legume or pod 
b. Follicle
c. Silique 
d. Silicula
e. Capsule
ii. Dry indehiscent:
a. Achene
b. Caryopsis
c. Cypsela 
d. Samara
e. Nut
iii. Schizocarpic or splitting:
a. Lomentum 
b. Cremocarp
c. Carcerulus 
d. Double Samara
e. Regma
2. Fleshy fruit: Pericarp distinguished into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp.
i. Drupe 
ii. Berry
iii. Pepo
iv. Pome
v. Hesperidium
vi. Balausta
vii. Amphiasacra: Wood apple

2. Sorosis: Jack fruit, pineapple, Mulberry (@Jasos PM)

3. Etaerio of Achenes: Rose and Nelumbo (@ RNACE)

4. Most import foods are obtained from Fruits.

5. Spines in the fruits of Water chestnut and Wings in the case of the Shorea Robusta are the modified sepals.

6. In the case of the dicots the seeds are extra albuminous and germination is Epigeal while in the monocot the seeds are Albuminous and Hypogeal.
But, in some dicots the germination is hypogeal. eg; gram, mango, broad bean and pea (@ good man buys books and pen)

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