The form of a verb that expresses a conditional action usually clauses beginning with words such as if, unless, provided that etc. is called a conditional. Conditional sentences consist of two clauses: a subordinate clause and the main clause.

Type (1) Conditional (Real conditional)
If + subj. + V1/V5 + obj +, …. sub + will/can/must/may + V1 + ..…
If I have money, I will buy a car.

If–clause Main clause
If + subj. + is/am/ are + V4 + Obj Will/may/can + V1+ Obj.
If + subj. + V1/V5 S + V1/ V5 + Obj.
(Universal/habitual action)
If + subj. + should +V1 / V5 + Obj Imperative (V1) + Obj.

John usually walks to school if he has enough time.
Please call me if you hear from Jane.

Type (2) conditional (Unreal conditional)
If + subj. + V2(were) +obj., subj. + would/could/might/should + V1 + obj.+
If he were there, he would tell you about it.

If–clause Main clause
If + subj. + was/were/ + V4/to + V1 + Obj S + would/ could/ might+ V1 + Obj.
Were + subj. + obj. +… Sub. + would/ might/ could + V1 + Obj
should + subj + V1 + Obj Sub. + would/ might/ could + V1 + Obj
If + Subj. + V2 + Obj. .... Sub. + V2 + Obj. (Past Habit)

a. Were I rich, I would travel around the world.
b. If anyone showed off, he got furious.
c. Should he meet me, I would recognize him at once.

Type (3) (unfulfilled action in the past)
If + subj. + had +V3 + obj., subj. + would/could/might +have+V3+ obj. +.......
If we hadn't lost our way, we would have reached in time

If–clause Main clause
If + subj./ + had been + obj. +.... Subj. + would/ could/might + have+ V3+ obj.
But for + noun/pronoun
Subj. + would/could/might+ have+ V3 + Obj.
Had + subj. + V3 +……… Subj. + would/could/might+ have+ V3 + Obj.

a. But for landslide, the people wouldn't have died.
b. Had she found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.
c. The film would have flopped, but for the director's creativity

Things to Remember
a. Unless → If… not (negative condition)
b. 'If...should', 'if…happen to', 'if... should happen to' can be used in type one.
c. Providing that/in case/ supposing that can be used instead of 'if '.

Some related constructions
1. Subj. + verb (present) + as if / as though + subj. + (were) + obj. example
The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer.

2. Subj. + verb (past) + 
as if / as though + subj. + had + V3 +…..
John looked as if he had seen a ghost.
Note: These two structures are used to show unreal or contrary to the fact.

3. Sub. + wish (present) + (that)+ subj. + V2 (were) + obj.……
She wishes that she was coming with us.

4. Subj. + wish (past)+ (that) + subj. + had +V3/could have + V3 + Obj.

5. If only + Subj. + could / would + V1 + Obj. (wish)
If only he could buy a car.

6. If only + Subj. + had + V3 + Obj. + . . . (Regrets)
If only he had completed his task in time.
She wished she had had a nice car.
Note: future 'wish' can be expressed through could/would + V1

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