There are two voices in English Active and Passive voice. In active voice, the doer of the action is given importance and in the passive voice, the victim (object) is given prominence.
The object which is acted upon gains significance and the doer recedes into the background.

Passive structure: OXS + be + en (V3) + (by + SXO)
him/her/me/them/us → he/she/I/they/we

Use of be verb
V1/V5 is / am / are
V2 (did) was / were
V3 been
V4 being
Modal Aux. be
To be

Prepositions with passive verbs
Some passive verbs take other prepositions instead of 'by'.
· Know, marry, oblige - to
· Please, displease, satisfy, dissatisfy cover, fill, hit - with.
· interest, contains - in
· surprise, shock, astonish - at
· bury, annoy - under
Note: Vague pronouns and nouns like: Somebody, nobody, anybody, someone, no one, people do not take 'by'
A: Clouds has covered the sky.
P: The sky has been covered with clouds.

A: Water filled the room.
P: The room was filled with water.

A: Everyone is looking after the child.
P: The child is being looked after.

(a) The indirect object of Di-transitive takes 'to' or 'for' in the passive
A: We handed him a gun.
P1: He was handed a gun (by us).
P2: A gun was handed to him (by us).

A: I bought my sister a sari.
P1: A sari was bought for my sister (by me).

(b) In interrogative and wh-questions, the question form must be retained.
Yes/No: Aux+OXS+be+V3+...........?
Wh-ques.: Wh. + aux + OXS + be + V3 + .... ?
Note: Who - By whom or who ....... by ?
A: Does she read novels?
P: Are novels read by her?

A: Did Hari catch the bus?
P: Was the bus caught by Hari?

A: Will she forgive us?
P: Shall we be forgiven by her?

A: Who painted it.
P1: Who was it painted by?
P2: By whom was it painted?

(c) Subj. + transitive infinitive has the following forms:
to + be + V3 + ... / for + obj + to + be + V3 + .....
A: There is no time to waste.
P: There is no time to be wasted.

A: It is time to take tea.
P: It is time for tea to be taken.

(d) Infinitive construction after passive verbs:
(A) Verbs like see, hear, find, make have full infinitive except 'let'.
A: He made us work.
P: We were made to work.

A: They let us go
P: We were let go.

(B) Sentences of the type: People say / think / know / consider, think, etc. that + . . . have two possible passive forms:
· It + be + V3 + that + subj + . . .
· Subj (that comp) + be + V3 + to + infinitival verb

Look at the following:
Active Passive infinitive
V1/V5 V1 (be)
V2/have/has had + V3 have + V3
is / am / are + V4 be + V4
Was / were + V4 have been + V4
has / have / had+ been + V4 have been + V4

A: People believed that he was insane.
P1: It was believed that he was insane.
P2: He was believed to have been insane.

(e) Imperative Sentences:
A: Imperative with object
Le + Obj + be + V3 + ...
O×S + should + be + V3 + . . . (advice).
A: Open the door.
P: Let the door be opened.

A: help the poor.
P: The poor should be helped.

B: Imperative without an object:
You/we + are requested/advised/suggested/ordered + to + V1...
Note: Please, do, kindly show request.
A: Do come tomorrow
P: You are requested to come tomorrow.

(f) Infinitive with Objects:
(A) Verbs of liking / wanting / wishing etc. + object + infinitive form their passive with the passive infinitive.
Subj + want / like / wish + obj2 + to + be + V3 + . . .
A: He wants someone (
obj1) to take photographs. (obj2)
P: He wants photographs to be taken.

(B) But advise / beg / order / urge / recommend + indirect object + infinitive + object has the following passive pattern:
· OXS + be + V3 + to + V1 + Obj + . . .
· Subj + urged / recommend + Obj1 + that + Obj2 + should be + V3 + . . .
A: He urged the council to reduce the rates.
P1: The council was urged to reduce the rates.
P2: He urged the council that the rate should be reduced.
Note: agree/detremrine/decide/demand + infinitive + object are usually expressed in passive by 'that . . . should'.
A: He decided to sell the house.
P: He decided that the house should be sold.

(g) Gerund combinations:
(a) Verbs like love, hate, adore, remember, like, dislike + object + gerund are expressed in passive in two ways:
Subj. + love / loathe / remember + being + V3 + ... (same obj)
Subj.+love/adore/remember+having+obj.+V3 +... (different obj)
A: I love people calling me at night.
P: I love being called at night. (I - me)

A: I hate people pulling my hair in the classroom.
P: I hate having my hair pulled in the classroom.

(B) advise / insist / recommend / suggest + gerund + object are usually expressed by 'that . . . should'.
A: He suggested painting the house.
P: He suggested that the house should be painted

A: He recommended using bullet-proof glass.
P: He recommended that bullet -proof glass should be used.

(c) gerund with non-living subject is expressed by to + be + V3
A: My shirt needs ironing.
P: My shirt needs to be ironed.

h. Reflexive passive:
Subj. + let + self + be + V3 + . . .
A: She let the man humiliate her.
P: She let herself be humiliated.
Note: Adverbs of manner occur between 'be' and 'V3'.
A: She faced the interview quite confidently.
P: The interview was quite confidently faced by her.

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