Transformation is the process of changing a sentence from one form to another. it is an excellent exercise as it teaches us how to express the same idea in a variety of ways.

Affirmative to Negative
Generally, negative sentences are formed by using negative words. The negative polarity items do not make negative, but they are used in negative sentences only.

Subj. + aux. + not + verb + obj + . . .

Rahul bought a book. (Aff.)
Rahul didn't buy a book. (Neg.)

He was hungry. (Aff.)
He was not hungry. (Neg.)

The following is a list of some useful words and their negative equivalents:

Rule 1:
Affirmative Negative
already not ….. yet
too not either
Imperative Don't/ do not + V1
Let us/ him/ her/ them Let us/ him/ her/ them + not +
frequently/ often rarely/ scarely/ seldom
had better/ would rather/ sooner had better/ would sooner not
As soon as No sooner .... than
Gerund / bare-infinitive / to-infinitive not + infinitive/ Gerund
Any of None of
a lot of not many/ much
must needn't/ mustn't/ can't
Either ...... or ...... Neither … nor …

a) Look before you leap. (Aff.)
Do not leap before you look. (Neg.)

b) As soon as I reached the station, the train left. (Aff.)
No sooner did I reach the station than the train left.

c) He said something. (Aff.)
He said nothing. (Neg.)
He didn't say anything. (Neg.)

a) must changes into needn't (not necessary)
b) must changes into must not (obligation)
c) must changes into can't/cannot (not necessary)
d) must changes into needn't (negative conclusion)

Affirmative to Interrogative
Interrogative is formed by pacing the auxiliary verb of the affirmative sentence at the beginning of the question sentence.
Yes/ No: Aux + subj. + (verb)+ obj + ……?
He sells flowers → Does he sell flowers ?
We use shall we ? and will you ? for let's and let us/him / her respectively.
a. He likes an apple.
→ Does he like an apple?

b. Come tomorrow.
→ Will, you come tomorrow?

c. Let's play chess. 
→ Shall we play chess?

d. Let me talk to her. 
→ Will you let me talk to her?
Note: Given below is a list of the words and their interrogative equivalents:
some → any
always / never → ever
already → yet
a lot of → much/ many

Affirmative into WH questions:
Wh + aux. + sub + (Verb)+ Obj + …….?
a. When does she get up?
b. Who are you to margerate?
Note: Use of appropriate question words
Who → person (subj)
Whom → person (Obj.)
What → inanimate object/ complement
Where → place
When → time
How → manner (way)
 reason/ purpose
Which → pointer
Whose → person (possessive)
He answered her questions.
Who answered her questions?

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